Climate Modelling Group
School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

Climate Research Network

Collaborative Research Agreement at the University of Victoria

on Behalf of the Canadian Institute for Climate Studies and Environment Canada

(CICS—Arctic Ocean; and subcomponent of CICS- Variability)

Progress Report:

April 1, 2000

This progress report is available on the world wide web at:

http://climate.uvic.ca/projects/CCC-Arctic-Progress2.html

1: Principal Investigator

Andrew Weaver

2: Co-Investigators

Ed Carmack, Greg Flato, Lawrence Mysak

3: Institution

School of Earth & Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria

PO Box 3055, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6

4: Research Progress

This progress report will discuss research conducted during the first year of financial support from the new AES/CICS Arctic Node of the Canadian Climate Research Network. This new node follows on from earlier projects funded under the CICS Variability and Global Oceans network. As such, some of the research discussed here was initiated under prior CICS funding and completed under the CICS Arctic funding.

Substantial leverage of the CICS grant occurred this fiscal year. In particular, Flato and Weaver received 100,000$ over two years to support a new research associate (Oleg Saenko) to assist in the implementation of the Bitz et al (2000) dynamic/thermodynamic sea ice model into the CCCma coupled model. In addition, A. Weaver and M. Holland at NCAR received a $100,000 US per year (for two years) grant from the International Arctic Research Center in Fairbanks Alaska. This grant will allow for the participation of M. Holland in the collaborative research conducted in the CICS Arctic Node.

The progress report below is broken up into a number of sections detailing progress towards different objectives. Progress is report for the entire fiscal year.

4.1: Low-frequency climate variations in the coupled North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic sea ice system

The simulated influence of Arctic sea ice on the variability of the North Atlantic climate was analysed in the context of a global coupled ice/ocean/atmosphere model. This coupled system incorporates a general circulation ocean model, an atmospheric energy moisture balance model and a dynamic/thermodynamic sea ice model. Under steady seasonal forcing, an equilibrium solution was obtained with very little variability. To induce variability in the model, daily varying stochastic anomalies were applied to the wind forcing of the northern hemisphere sea ice cover. These stochastic anomalies had observed spatial patterns but were random in time. Model simulations were run for 1000 years from an equilibrium state and the variability in the system was analyzed. The sensitivity of the system to the ice/ocean coupling of both heat and fresh water was also examined.

Under the stochastic forcing conditions, low amplitude (approximately 10% of the mean) variability in the thermohaline circulation (THC) occurred. This variability had enhanced spectral power at interdecadal timescales that was concentrated at approximately 20 years. It was forced by fluctuations in the export of ice from the Arctic into the North Atlantic. Large changes in sea-surface temperature and salinity were related to changes in the overturning circulation and the sea ice coverage in the northern North Atlantic. Additionally, the THC variability influenced the Arctic basin through heat transport under the ice pack.

Results from sensitivity studies suggest that the fresh water exchange from the variable ice cover is the dominant process for forcing variability in the overturning. The simulated Arctic ice export appears to provide stochastic forcing to the northern North Atlantic which excites a damped oscillatory ocean-only mode. The insulating capacity of the variable sea ice has a negligible effect on the THC. Ice/ocean thermal coupling acts to preferentially damp THC variability with periods greater than approximately 30 years, but has little influence on variability at higher frequencies.

The impact of rising atmospheric CO2 levels on this low frequency variability of the North Atlantic climate was also examined. In particular, we focused on THC variability induced by fluctuations in ice export from the Arctic basin. Under 2 x CO2 conditions, the thermohaline circulation variance was reduced to 7% of its simulated value under present day forcing. This decrease was caused by relatively low ice export variability and changes in the primary ice melt location in the northern North Atlantic under 2 x CO2 conditions.

This research has been published in Holland et al.( 2000a,b).

4.2 Sea ice model sensitivity analyses

Climate simulations in the UVic coupled model were investigated using a dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice and snow model with sophisticated thermodynamics and a sub-grid scale parameterisation for multiple ice thicknesses. In addition to the sea ice component, the model included a full primitive-equation ocean and a simple energy-moisture balance atmosphere. We introduced a new formulation of the ice thickness distribution that is Lagrangian in thickness-space. The method is designed to use fewer thickness categories because it adjusts to place resolution where it is needed the most, and it is free of diffusive effects that tend to smooth Eulerian distributions. Simulations showed that the model did well in capturing the mean Arctic climate. Compared to simulations without an ice-thickness distribution, we found widespread changes in the Arctic and northern North Atlantic climate. The ice-thickness distribution caused ice export through Fram Strait to be more variable and more strongly linked to meridional overturning in the North Atlantic Ocean.

The Lagrangian formulation of the ice thickness distribution allows for the inclusion of a vertical temperature profile with relative ease compared to an Eulerian method. We found ice growth rates and ocean surface salinity differed in our model with a well resolved vertical temperature profile in the ice and snow and an explicit brine-pocket parameterisation compared to a simulation with Semtner zero-layer thermodynamics. Although these differences are important for the climate of the Arctic, the effect of an ice thickness distribution are more dramatic and have further reaching consequences for the Northern Hemisphere. Sensitivity experiments indicate that five ice thickness categories with ~ 50 cm vertical temperature resolution captures the effects of the ice thickness distribution on the heat and freshwater exchange across the surface in the presence of sea ice in climate simulations.

This research has been published in Bitz et al. (2000).

4.3: An analysis of the Canadian precipitation record

Past research has unveiled important variations in mean precipitation, often related to large scale shifts in atmospheric circulation, and consistent with projected responses to enhanced global warming. More recently, however, it has been realised that important and influential changes in the variability of daily precipitation events have also occurred in the past, often unrelated to changes in mean accumulation. This study aimed to uncover variations in precipitation event intensity over Canada and to compare the observed variations with those in mean accumulation and two dominant modes of atmospheric variability, namely the Arctic/North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/NAO) and the Pacific/North America teleconnection pattern (PNA). Results were examined on both annual and seasonal bases, and with regions defined by similarities in monthly variability.

Seasonally increasing trends were found in southern areas of Canada that result from increases in all levels of event intensity during the 20th century. During the latter half of the century increases were concentrated in heavy and intermediate events, with the largest changes occurring in Arctic areas. Variations in precipitation intensity can, however, be unrelated to variations in the mean accumulation. Consistent with these differences, the precipitation responses to the NAO and PNA were found to often occur in northeastern regions in summer and winter with the intensity affected in both seasons. The PNA strongly influences precipitation in many regions of the country during autumn and winter. In particular, it strongly influences variations in southern British Columbia and the Prairies, affecting the intensity in only some areas. However, it only influences the frequency of heavier events in autumn and winter in Ontario and southern Quebec, where this response is actually more robust than the response in total accumulation. During these seasons a negative PNA generally leads to more extreme precipitation events.

This research has been published in Stone et al. (2000).

4.4: The Canada Basin 1989—1995: Upstream change and far-field effects of the

Barents Sea Branch.

Physical and geochemical tracer measurements were collected at one oceanographic station (Station A: 72°N 143°W) in the southern Canada Basin from 1989 to 1995, along sections from the Beaufort Shelf to this station in 1993 and 1995, and along a section westward of Banks Island in 1995. These measurements were examined to see how recent events in three upstream Arctic Ocean sub-basins impacted upon Canada Basin waters. Upstream events included Atlantic layer warming, relocation of the Atlantic/Pacific water mass boundary, and increased ventilation of boundary current waters. Early signals of change appeared first in the Canada Basin in 1993 along the continental margin and, by 1995, were evident at Station A in the basin interior and farther downstream. Differences in physical and geochemical properties (nutrients, oxygen, 129l and CFCs) were observed throughout much of the water column to depths greater than 1600 m. In particular, the boundary distinguishing Pacific from Atlantic-origin water was found to be shallower and Atlantic-origin water occupied more of the Canada Basin water column. By 1995, Atlantic-origin water in the lower halocline at Station A was found to be colder and more ventilated. Likewise, within the Atlantic layer, Fram Strait Branch (FSB) water was colder, fresher, and more ventilated, and Barents Sea Branch (BSB) water was warmer, fresher, and more ventilated than during previous years. By comparing observations at Station A with eastern Nansen Basin observations, the main source of these changes was traced to dense water outflow from the Barents Sea. Studies indicated that in early 1989 Barents Sea waters were 2 °C warmer and that between 1988 and 1989, a large volume of dense water had left the shelf. These events coincided with an atmospheric shift to increased cyclonic circulation in 1989, a transition unprecedented in its magnitude, geographic reach, and apparent oceanographic impact. The effects of a large outflow of dense Barents Sea water were observed some 5000 km away downstream in the Canada Basin where the BSB component of the Atlantic layer had increased 20% by 1995.

This research has been published in McLaughlin et al. (2000). F. McLaughlin successfully defended her PhD thesis and will convocate in June of this year.

4.5 Fresh water fluxes through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

As part of his PhD, Gilles Arfeuille participated in an Arctic cruise which completed 184 science stations in the western part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from the 23rd of August to the 25th of October 1999. During these sciences stations CTD/Rosette casts were conducted to infer the fresh water flux through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, especially in its western part (i.e. Amundsen Gulf, Prince of Wales Strait, Dolphin and Union Strait, Coronation Gulf, Dease Strait, Queen Maud Gulf, Simpson Strait, Chantrey Inlet, Rae Strait, James Ross Strait, Peel Sound, and Bellot Strait), which has not been studied in detail in previous years. Using 1995, 1997 and this 1999 data, the fresh water flux by sea ice transport and buoyancy boundary currents will be inferred. The fresh water import into the North Atlantic via Baffin Bay is estimated to be 20% of the sea-ice export through Fram Strait. The dO18 data from the water samples taken during the science cruise will reveal the origin of the fresh water forming the buoyancy boundary currents observed during the cruise using the CTD data (i.e. sea-ice melting or river runoff origin).

The post-cruise calibrations and the salinity measurements from the salinity samples have been calculated, and the data has been filtered. Initial results, which are promising, reveal the relative importance of fresh water input from rivers and sea-ice melting in the Archipelago and the transport of this fresh water via buoyancy boundary currents. One of the interesting results is the high variability of these buoyancy boundary currents. To infer more on the variability of the latter we are setting up more experiments that will take place in the Arctic this coming summer.

Other CTD sections will be done in the usual way but also one of our projects is to set up 5 wave-generated moorings on a line near Cambridge Bay that will take data continuously. This CTD section will be check every day and completed with other CTD casts on the same line during the day and during a period of two to three weeks. Two meteorological weather stations will be placed at each end of the line to infer the atmospherical forcing on the ocean. The latter experiment will allow us to set up in future modelling work more realistic experiments and also will help to understand the forcing that influence the buoyancy boundary currents and their evolution under this forcing.

4.6 Towards the implementation of a new sea ice model in the CCCma coupled model

A description of, and the results from, a number of sensitivity analyses conducted using the sea ice model, to be included in the CCCma coupled model, has been submitted for publication (Bitz et al. 2000) and we are awaiting reviews. In the mean time, Linda Waterman (a new PhD student) and Mike Eby (a Research Associate), both funded off CICS Arctic grants, are undertaking further sensitivity analyses using this model. Linda will also focus on a modelling-based study of the heat and freshwater flux balance of the Arctic Ocean. The vertical resolution of the UVic ocean model will be increased and a parameterization for local turbulent mixing, which has been found better suited to high latitude work, will be incorporated and tested. In related work, the physics of the ocean-sea ice interface will be reviewed and improved. It is also hoped to better resolve significant Arctic Ocean exchange points, including the Canadian Archipelago and Bering Strait, to estimate their impact on the flux balance.

A research associate (Oleg Saenko) has been hired and he has recently commenced work on the project. He has so far familiarized himself with the sea-ice model and has begun a series of test calculations aimed at improving the representation of ocean convection under ice. In particular, an improved parameterization of sub-grid scale convection due to sea ice formation is being developed. Resolving a distribution of sea ice thickness within a given model grid cell enables us to account for the brine released under each ice category and to apply convective mixing to both ocean salinity and temperature under a density-unstable ice category. The latter is allowed to occur even if the ocean is vertically stable over the whole model grid cell. It is hoped that the new parameterization of brine rejection/sinking will improve the simulation of the ocean thermocline structure, and in particular deep water formation. A better simulation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) due to sea ice formation should result in a better simulation of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). These water masses, jointly with North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), are known to define deep ocean structure, thus influencing long-term variability of climate. Dr. Saenko is using the UVic coupled model as the tool for testing the new parameterization.

As he works on the parameterization development, Dr. Saenko is also familiarizing himself with the CCCma global coupled model, into which the sea-ice model will be incorporated. In collaboration with the principal investigators, a detailed work plan has been outlined for the coming year. This involves a methodical approach of first inserting and testing the dynamic portion of the ice model (that part which computes ice motion). This will be followed by inserting and testing the thermodynamic portion (that part which computes vertical ice growth and melt); and ultimately inserting and testing that portion that involves the evolution of the thickness distribution function (the sub-grid-scale variation of ice thickness).

In the mean time, Greg Flato at the CCCma has been developing and testing sea-ice diagnostic programs to display ice motion fields, compute ice mass transports, and calculate various statistics related to ice motion and variability. These will be used throughout the project to analyze the results of the developing sea-ice component of the CCCma coupled model.

    1. Analysis of sea-ice variability in the CCCma global coupled model.

The second version of the CCCma coupled model, CGCM2, includes a physically-based representation of sea-ice dynamics. G. Flato is currently conducting an analysis to investigate variability in the simulated sea-ice cover, transport of ice out of the Arctic and into the North Atlantic, and their impact on other aspects of the climate system. The analysis makes use of a recently-completed 1000 year control integration which allows study of natural variability on a range of time scales. Results from this study will be presented at the upcoming International Glaciology Symposium in Fairbanks, and a manuscript is in preparation. A master's student (Jackie Dumas) will arrive this fall to work with. G. Flato on a project related to Arctic climate processes.

4.8 McGill University

Venegas and Mysak (2000) have performed a frequency-domain singular value decomposition analysis on century-long records of North Atlantic sector sea ice concentration and sea level pressure poleward of 40°N. The analysis reveals that fluctuations on the interdecadal and quasidecadal timescales account for a large fraction of the natural climate variability in the Arctic and northern North Atlantic. Four dominant signals, with periods of 6-7 years, 9-10 years, 16-20 years and 30-50 years, are isolated and analyzed, especially in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation. These four signals account for about 60-70% of the variance in their respective frequency bands. All of them appear in the monthly (year-round) data. However, the 9-10 year oscillation expecially stands out as a winter phenomenon, and confirms the earlier findings of Slonosky et al. (Atmos.-Ocean, 1997) and Mysak and Venegas (GRL, 1998) who examined shorter records.

With MSc student Anne Armstrong (and in collaboration initially with Gilles Arfeuille [UVic. PhD student supervised by E. Carmack/A. Weaver], and now in collaboration with Bruno Tremblay of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univ.) an EOF analysis is being performed on the sea ice concentration (SIC) data from a 41-year wind-driven run (1958-98) of the Tremblay-Mysak ice model for the Arctic domain poleward of 68 N (see Arfeuille et al., 2000, in which only the ice export from the model run was analyzed). These model EOFs are being compared with those computed from the observed SIC data for the same period. In domains where there is large variability (eg, the Barents Sea), the agreement is quite good. However, so far the model has been run only with a climatological seasonal cycle for the air temperature, instead of year-to-year varying temperatures. In the next phase of the research this will be done, as well an analysis of the observed and model fluctuations in specified regions of the Arctic.

Development of a coupled ice-ocean model of the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic: In collaboration with PDF Blandine L'Heveder, we are now fine-tuning the earlier work of PDF Todd Arbetter (who was partially supported by the CICS grant) on coupling the Tremblay-Mysak ice model to the MOM 3 ocean model, obtained from GFDL/NOAA, Princeton. In the first instance we are applying the model at high resolution to the Baffin Bay region, in order to simulate the North Water polynya. An extension of the earlier work of Arbetter is to have the model functioning well under open boundary conditions in the Davis Strait region. Later the model will be applied to the Arctic-Atlantic domain, and the influence of large sea ice export anomalies on the thermohaline circulation will be investigated. Also the results will be compared with those of Holland et al. (2000) who did a similar study at UVic using a different sea ice model.

1999—200 Publications for Weaver, Mysak, Flato. Those numbers in bold indicated publications supported by the CICS Arctic/Variability Projects.

Weaver:

1. Weaver, A.J., C.M. Bitz, A.F. Fanning and M.M. Holland, 1999: Thermohaline circulation: High latitude phenomena and the difference between the Pacific and Atlantic. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 27, 231—285.

2. National Research Council, 1999: Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 165pp.

3. Weaver, A.J., 1999: Extratropical subduction and decadal modulation of El Niño. Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 743—746.

4. Huck, T., A. Colin de Verdière and A.J. Weaver, 1999: Interdecadal variability of the thermohaline circulation in box-ocean models forced by fixed surface fluxes. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29, 893—910.

5. Huck, T., A.J. Weaver and A. Colin de Verdière, 1999: On the influence of the parameterisation of lateral boundary layers on the thermohaline circulation in coarse-resolution ocean models. Journal of Marine Research, 57, 387—426.

6. Duffy, P.B., M. Eby and A.J. Weaver, 1999: Effects of sinking of salt rejected during formation of sea ice on results of a global ocean-atmosphere-sea ice climate model. Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 1739-1742.

7. Poussart, P.F., A.J. Weaver and C.R. Barnes, 1999: Late Ordovician glaciation under high atmospheric CO2: A coupled model analysis. Paleoceanography, 14, 542—558.

8. Weaver, A.J., 1999: Millennial timescale variability in ocean/climate models. In: Mechanisms of Global Climate Change at Millennial Time Scales. Webb R.S., P.U. Clark, and L.D. Keigwin Eds., American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph Vol. 112, Washington, D.C., pp. 285—300.

9. Wiebe, E.C. and A.J. Weaver, 1999: On the sensitivity of global warming experiments to the parametrisation of sub-grid scale ocean mixing. Climate Dynamics, 15, 875—893.

10. Weaver, A.J. and E.C. Wiebe, 1999: On the sensitivity of projected oceanic thermal expansion to the parameterisation of sub-grid scale ocean mixing. Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 3461—3464.

11. Weaver, A.J., P.B. Duffy, M. Eby and E.C. Wiebe, 2000: Evaluation of ocean and climate models using present-day observations and forcing. Atmosphere-Ocean, in press.

12. Rutter, N.W., A.J. Weaver, D. Rokosh, A.F. Fanning and D.G. Wright, 2000: Is the Younger Dryas a global event? Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, in press.

13. Flato, G.M., G.J. Boer, N.A. McFarlane, D. Ramsden, M.C. Reader and A.J. Weaver, 2000: The Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis global coupled model and its climate. Climate Dynamics, in press.

14. Stone, D.A., A.J. Weaver and F.W. Zwiers, 2000: Trends in Canadian precipitation intensity. Atmosphere-Ocean, in press.

15. Holland, M.M., A.J. Brasket and A.J. Weaver, 2000: The impact of rising atmospheric CO2 on low frequency North Atlantic climate variability. Geophysical Research Letters, in press.

16. Duffy, P.B., M. Eby and A.J. Weaver, 2000: Climate model simulations of effect of Antarctic sea ice on stratification of the Southern Ocean. Journal of Climate, in press.

17. Holland, M.M., C.M. Bitz, M. Eby and A.J. Weaver, 2000: The role of ice ocean interactions in the variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Journal of Climate, submitted.

18. Wang, H., P.B. Duffy, K. Caldeira, M. Eby, A.J. Weaver and A.F. Fanning, 2000: Importance of water vapor transport to the hydrological cycle in an atmospheric energy-moisture balance model coupled to an OGCM. Journal of Geophysical Research, submitted.

19. Bitz, C.M., M.M. Holland, A.J. Weaver and M. Eby, 2000: Simulating the ice-thickness distribution in a coupled climate model. Journal of Geophysical Research, submitted.

20. Yoshimori, M., A.J. Weaver, S.J. Marshall and G.K.C. Clarke, 2000: Glacial termination: Sensitivity to orbital and CO2 forcing in a coupled climate system model. Climate Dynamics, submitted.

21. McLaughlin, F. E. Carmack, R. Macdonald, A.J. Weaver and J. Smith, 2000: The Canada Basin 1989-1995: Upstream events and far-field effects of the Barents Sea branch. J. Geophys. Res., submitted.

Flato:

1. Monahan, A.H., J.C. Fyfe and G.M. Flato. 2000: A new view of northern hemisphere atmospheric variability and change under global warming. in press, Geophys. Res. Lett.

2. Weaver, R.L.S., K. Steffen, J. Heinrichs, J. Maslanik, and G.M. Flato. 2000: Data assimilation in sea ice monitoring. in press, Annals of Glaciology.

3. Schramm, J.L. G.M. Flato and J.C. Curry. 2000: Towards the modelling of enhanced basal melting in ridge keels. in press, J. Geophys. Res.

4. Kreyscher, M., M. Harder, P. Lemke and G.M. Flato. 2000: Results of the Sea Ice Model Intercomparison Project: Evaluatoin of sea-ice rheology schemes for use in climate simulations. in press, J. Geophys. Res.

5. Goyette, S., N.A. McFarlane, and G.M. Flato. 2000: Application of the Canadian Regional Climate Model to the Laurentian Great Lakes region: Implementation of a lake model. in press, Atmosphere-Ocean.

6. Covey, C., A. Abe-Ouchi, G.J. Boer, G.M. Flato, plus 19 others. 2000: The seasonal cycle in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models. in press, Climate Dynamics.

7. Flato, G.M., G.J. Boer, W.G. Lee, N.A. McFarlane, D. Ramsden, M.C. Reader, and A.J. Weaver. 2000: The Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis Global Coupled Model and its Climate. in press, Climate Dynamics.

8. Boer, G.J., G.M. Flato, M.C. Reader, and D. Ramsden. 2000: A transient climate change simulation with greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing: experimental design and comparison with the intrumental record from the 20th century. in press, Climate Dynamics.

9. Boer, G.J., G.M. Flato, and D. Ramsden. 2000: A transient climate change simulation with greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing: projected climate change in the 21st century. in press, Climate Dynamics.

10. Fyfe, J.C., G.J. Boer, and G.M. Flato. 1999: The Arctic and Antarctic Oscillations and their Projected Changes Under Global Warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1601-1604.

11. Hanesiak, J.M., D.G. Barber, and G.M. Flato. 1999. The role of diurnal processes in the seasonal evolution of sea ice and its snow cover. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 13593-13604.

12. Fyfe, J.C. and G.M. Flato. 1999. Enhanced climate change and its detection over the Rocky Mountains. J. Clim., 12:230-243.

13. Goodison, B.E., R.D. Brown, M.M. Brugman, C.R. Duguay, G.M. Flato, E.F. LeDrew, and A.E. Walker, 1999: CRYSYS - Use of the cryospheric system to monitor global change in Canada: Overview and progress. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 25, 3-11.

Mysak:

1. Yi, D., L.A. Mysak and S.A. Venegas, 1999: Decadal-to-interdecadal fluctuations of Arctic sea-ice cover and the atmospheric circulation during 1954-1994. Atmosphere-Ocean 37: 389-415

2. Arfeuille, G., L.A. Mysak and L.B. Tremblay, 2000: Simulation of the interannual variability of the wind driven Arctic sea ice cover during 1958-1998. Climate Dynamics 15: in press.

3. Wang, Z. and L.A. Mysak, 2000: A simple coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice-land surface model for climate and paleoclimate studies. Journal of Climate 13: 1150-1172

4. Venegas, S.A., and L.A. Mysak, 2000: Is there a dominant timescale for natural climate variability in the Arctic? Journal of Climate 13, in press.

5. Bjornsson, H., and L.A. Mysak, 2000: Present day and last glacial maximum ocean thermohaline circulation in a zonally averaged coupled ocean-sea ice-atmosphere model. J. Climate, accepted Jan. 2000

6. Mysak, L.A., 2000: Arctic sea ice and its role in climate variability and change. Submitted Mar. 2000 for the Festschrift honouring the 60th birthday of Prof. Kolumban Hutter (Jan. 22, 2001), edited by B. Straughan and R. Greve, pp. xx-yy, Springer-Verlag.

7. Bjornsson, H., A.J. Willmott, L. A. Mysak and M.A. Morales Macqueda, 2000: Polynyas in a high resolution dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model and their parameterization using flux models. Tellus, submitted.

8. Wang, Z., and L.A. Mysak, 2000: Ice sheet-thermohaline circulation interactions in a simple climate model. Climate Dynamics, submitted.

9. Wang, Z., and L.A. Mysak, 2000: Are there interannual-to-decadal scale oscillations associated with sea ice-thermohaline circulation interactions in a simple coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model? Scientia Meteorological Sinica, submitted.

10. Newbigging, S.C., L.A. Mysak and Z. Wang, 2000: A stabilizing atmospheric feedback to the thermohaline circulation. Tellus, submitted.


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